Data Visualization on US Permanent Work Visa

Posted on Feb 18, 2019
The skills the author demoed here can be learned through taking Data Science with Machine Learning bootcamp with NYC Data Science Academy.


Data shows there are approximately 140,000 immigrant visas available each year for workers who seek to immigrate based on their job skills (information from US Citizenship and Immigration Service website).

With so many positions fulfilled by foreign worker, this project aims to be a data visualization tool to help companies and workers to find out what kind of professionals US employers are looking for outside of the country.


The dataset contains information from 2015 to 2018 which was downloaded fromย foreignlaborcert.doleta.govย website.ย Each year's record has 125 columns and approximately 100,000 observations.

The first step was clean the dataset where the columns with most relevant information were selected, all wage offers were converted by annual scale and the state name of the job was standardized, because some names were in their short names and other in the long ones).

All scripts may be find here.

Shiny App - Data and Charts

It is possible to find all tabs on the left side of the app. The first data-containing one (Charts) opens two sub-tabs (Visa and Job Information). Click here to open the Shiny App.

Data Visualization on US Permanent Work VisaFigure 1: Visa sub-tab

The Visa sub-tab shows a bar-chart where it is possible to visualize the number of application per year. The user may filter the visa status (if the application was certified or denied, for example) and the employee's education level. This graph intends to give a first insight about the data where the user may analyze if there is some significant change of the filter variants over the time.

Data Visualization on US Permanent Work VisaFigure 2: Job Information sub-tab - Top 10 Companies

In the Job Information sub-tab there are four tabs with different data visualization and three interactive tools where all four graphs are affected and the user is able to analyze a specific information.

At the Company tab, there is a bar chart with the top 10 companies that is sponsor of the foreign worker. The user is able to change the number of applicants to the wage offer.

Data Visualization on US Permanent Work VisaFigure 3: Job Information sub-tab - Top 10 Job Title

At the Job Title tab, there is a bar chart with the top 10 job titles. Based on figures 2 and 3, it may be conclude that the most positions are related with technology.

Figure 4: Job Information sub-tab - Education level by number of applicants

Figure 5: Job Information sub-tab - Education level by average wage offer

At the Education Level and Visa Type tabs, it is possible to visualize the number of applicants for both variables and when the user changes to see by the average wage offer, a box plot is shown. In general, there are more applicants with bachelor's and master's degree and their wage offer are more disperse, as shown on figure 5.

Shiny App - Map

At Map tab, it is possible to visualize the global map in the first tab (From: Country of Citizenship) where represents the country of citizenship of the visa applicant and the US map in the second tab (To: USA State) that is the location of the job. The color of each region of both maps represents the intensity of the variable.

The user may change the number of applicants to the average wage offer, the year and the educational level to analyze how these variables affect the maps.

Figure 6: Map tab - variables

Figure 7: Map tab

Data Scientist

Let's use the app for a specific case where the user wants to search the job title that contains "data scientist" on it.

Figure 8: Companies by number of applicants - Data Scientist search

Figure 9: Companies by average wage offer - Data Scientist search

Source 11: Education level by number of applicants - Data Scientist search

Figure 8: Education level by average offer - Data Scientist search

It is possible to verify that Microsoft and Facebook are sponsor for data scientists more frequently but Netflix has offered the highest wage salary among the foreign worker with this job title.

The top 10 job title for data scientist seems to be leaders position and the wage range is between 150k and 200k yearly.

Most of the data scientist has master's degree


This app is a tool to visualize some job information from positions fulfilled by foreign workers.

In general, it may say that the most applicants are from India, have bachelor's or master's degree, have job title and work for companies related with technology and the location of these jobs are concentrated in California.

About Author

Stella Oliveira

Data scientist with a background in financial services and demonstrated experience managing data and deploying predictive models. Highly motivated to combine the ability to thrive in a fast-paced work environment with the fascination for generating insights from complex...
View all posts by Stella Oliveira >

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