Energy Consumption

Posted on Feb 18, 2019

The aim of this project is to design an interactive app that displays the energy usage in countries and regions around the world from the later part of 20th century to early part of 21st. 

International Energy Statistics

Depending on the industry and individual being asked, the word 'Energy' has different definitions, but for the purpose of this project, it shall be defined as the entity of nature that is transformed from one form to another between parts of a system in the production of physical change within the system. The first and still major source of energy is the sun. 
Over the years, different sources of energy have emerged; Fossil fuels is a huge source of coal, oil and natural gas. Other sources of energy are Nuclear plant, Hydro-electric, Wind and Geothermal. Energy consumption has evolved as new sources are discovered, wood and hydroelectric were in high use up until last century, this changed drastically in mid 20th century when nuclear, coal, natural gas and petroleum became the most consumed energy sources. This project takes a closer look into energy consumption around the world.

Data analyzed is sourced form the United States Government Department of Energy data catalog. It contains energy consumption of 225 countries from 1990 to 2008 in Quadrillion BTU (British Thermal Unit) or 1.055 × 10^18 joules. It puts into account all sources of energy.

Some of the energy products covered in this statistical analysis are: 
Hard coal - Coals with high calorific value;
Anthracite - Hard, high-rank coal; 
Coking coal - Bituminuous coal capable of fueling blast furnace charge;
Lignite - Brown coal with high calorific value;
Peat - Fuel from solidified decomposed dead vegetation;
Gas coke - By-product of bitmus carbonization;
Natural gas liquids - Mixture of ethane, propane, butane, pentane, produced alongside oil and gas;
Additives and Oxygenates - Compounds blended or added to oil product for property modification;
Aviation gasoline - Gas used for aviation engines;
Motor gasoline - A mixture of aromatics and aliphatic hydrocarbons which may also contain biogasoline products;
Kerosene-type jet fuel - Kerosene blend suitable to jet engines;
Kerosene - Mixture of hydrocarbons used for cooking, lighting, heating and as solvent;
Diesel oil - Hydrocarbons of high carbon range;
Bitumen - Viscous, semi-solid or solid hydrocarbon, mostly employed in road construction;
Natural gas - Mixturre of gaseous hydrocarbon which may be liquefied by reducing it temperature for storage and transportation;
Blast furnace gas - Mostly nitrogen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, by-product of blast furnace;
Electricity - Generated through different source, is a form of energy involving electrical charges;
Uranium - Radioactive element used as fuel for nuclear power plant and in atomic bomb.

Energy consumption for all countries around the world is on the rise from the period considered till date.

Regionally, based on the map plot visualized, Asia records the sharpest increase in energy consumption while Africa have the slowest record of energy consumption.

Conclusion

It is not surprising that energy consumption has always been on the increase for individual countries and the world at large, the first argument that comes to mind is population size. Considering the period this project covers only, the world population stood at 5.3 Billion in 1990 while in 2008, world population rose to 6.7 Billion.

Other factors are technological advancement and improvement in the standard of living around the world.

An update has been made on the app to include a section that analyzes renewable energy production.

Link to the web app: https://olubrizzle.shinyapps.io/energyanalysis/

About Author

Oluwole Alowolodu

Recent graduate of Biotechnology - MS. Data science fellow and AI enthusiast.
View all posts by Oluwole Alowolodu >

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