Visualizing 20 years of IMF bailouts

Fatema Soliman
Posted on Oct 21, 2019



Established by the Bretton Woods Agreement in 1944, the International Monetary Fund seeks to ensure the stability of the international monetary system by promoting international monetary co-operation, international trade, high employment, exchange-rate stability, sustainable economic growth, and making resources available to member countries in financial difficulty.

The Monitoring of Fund Arrangements (MONA) Database provides comprehensive arrangement as well as country level data from 2002.

A choropleth map further highlights the gap between the number of loans and amounts of loans given to low and medium or high income countries. Sierra Leone has received six loans since 2002, making it the most frequent borrower in Africa. While Egypt, a first time borrower received a loan over 22 times larger in 2019.

The General Resources Account (GRA) is a type of loan available to all member states, whereas the Poverty Reduction and Growth Trust (PRGT) is only available to low income countries (LICs). PRGT loans were made up to the majority of approved loans for every year until 2008, when they were overtaken by GRA loans. Both the number of loans and total loaned amounts peaked two years later in 2010, as a result of the global financial crisis, with a total of 107 billion Special Drawing Rights (SDR), equivalent to $148 billion in loans approved that year, 97% of which was given to countries in Europe and South and Central America.

Balance of Payments (as % of GDP) of Colombia

The primary criterion for success or failure of an IMF bailout is a country balance of payments. Countries often seek IMF aid when they experience large and deteriorating BoP deficits. With nine loans, Colombia holds the record for the most IMF bailouts since 2002 but it is often criticized as one of the IMF and the World Bank’s most obvious failures. Not only has the BoP failed to show significant improvement, but the IMF’s economic policies, which it places as conditions for disbursing tranches of a loan, have been blamed for rising unemployment and falling per capita income. 

About Author

Fatema Soliman

Fatema Soliman

Fatema is a Data Science Fellow with an MSci in Physics and experience in Ad Tech and Programmatic.
View all posts by Fatema Soliman >

Leave a Comment

Avatar August 28, 2020 [...]very few web-sites that come about to be detailed beneath, from our point of view are undoubtedly nicely really worth checking out[...]

View Posts by Categories

Our Recent Popular Posts

View Posts by Tags

#python #trainwithnycdsa 2019 airbnb Alex Baransky alumni Alumni Interview Alumni Reviews Alumni Spotlight alumni story Alumnus API Application artist aws beautiful soup Best Bootcamp Best Data Science 2019 Best Data Science Bootcamp Best Data Science Bootcamp 2020 Best Ranked Big Data Book Launch Book-Signing bootcamp Bootcamp Alumni Bootcamp Prep Bundles California Cancer Research capstone Career Career Day citibike clustering Coding Course Demo Course Report D3.js data Data Analyst data science Data Science Academy Data Science Bootcamp Data science jobs Data Science Reviews Data Scientist Data Scientist Jobs data visualization Deep Learning Demo Day Discount dplyr employer networking feature engineering Finance Financial Data Science Flask gbm Get Hired ggplot2 googleVis Hadoop higgs boson Hiring hiring partner events Hiring Partners Industry Experts Instructor Blog Instructor Interview Job Job Placement Jobs Jon Krohn JP Morgan Chase Kaggle Kickstarter lasso regression Lead Data Scienctist Lead Data Scientist leaflet linear regression Logistic Regression machine learning Maps matplotlib Medical Research Meet the team meetup Networking neural network Neural networks New Courses nlp NYC NYC Data Science nyc data science academy NYC Open Data NYCDSA NYCDSA Alumni Online Online Bootcamp Online Training Open Data painter pandas Part-time Portfolio Development prediction Prework Programming PwC python python machine learning python scrapy python web scraping python webscraping Python Workshop R R language R Programming R Shiny r studio R Visualization R Workshop R-bloggers random forest Ranking recommendation recommendation system regression Remote remote data science bootcamp Scrapy scrapy visualization seaborn Selenium sentiment analysis Shiny Shiny Dashboard Spark Special Special Summer Sports statistics streaming Student Interview Student Showcase SVM Switchup Tableau team TensorFlow Testimonial tf-idf Top Data Science Bootcamp twitter visualization web scraping Weekend Course What to expect word cloud word2vec XGBoost yelp